PDF - Forex Trading for Beginners (2020) - Finance Illustrated

ATO Australian tax treatment for options trades 🇦🇺

I am posting this as I hope it will help other Australian options traders trading in US options with their tax treatment for ATO (Australian Tax Office) purposes. The ATO provides very little guidance on tax treatment for options trading and I had to do a lot of digging to get to this point. I welcome any feedback on this post.

The Deloitte Report from 2011

My initial research led me to this comprehensive Deloitte report from 2011 which is hosted on the ASX website. I've been through this document about 20 times and although it's a great report to understand how different scenarios apply, it's still really hard to find out what's changed since 2011.
I am mainly relating myself to the scenario of being an individual and non-sole trader (no business set up) for my trading. I think this will apply to many others here too. According to that document, there isn't much guidance on what happens when you're an options premium seller and close positions before they expire.
Note that the ATO sometimes uses the term "ETO" (Exchange Traded Option) to discuss what we're talking about here with options trading.
Also note: The ATO discusses the separate Capital Gains Tax ("CGT") events that occur in each scenario in some of their documents. A CGT event will then determine what tax treatment gets applied if you don't know much about capital gains in Australia.

ATO Request for Advice

Since the Deloitte report didn't answer my questions, I eventually ended up contacting the ATO with a request for advice and tried to explain my scenario: I'm an Australian resident for tax purposes, I'm trading with tastyworks in $USD, I'm primarily a premium seller and I don't have it set up with any business/company/trust etc. In effect, I have a rough idea that I'm looking at capital gains tax but I wanted to fully understand how it worked.
Initially the ATO respondent didn't understand what I was talking about when I said that I was selling a position first and buying it to close. According to the laws, there is no example of this given anywhere because it is always assumed in ATO examples that you buy a position and sell it. Why? I have no idea.
I sent a follow up request with even more detail to the ATO. I think (hope) they understood what I meant now after explaining what an options premium seller is!

Currency Gains/Losses

First, I have to consider translating my $USD to Australian dollars. How do we treat that?
FX Translation
If the premium from selling the options contract is received in $USD, do I convert it to $AUD on that day it is received?
ATO response:
Subsection 960-50(6), Item 5 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 (ITAA 1997) states the amount should be translated at the time of the transaction or event for the purposes of the Capital Gains Tax provisions. For the purpose of granting an option to an entity, the time of the event is when you grant the option (subsection 104-20(2) ITAA 1997).
This is a very detailed response which even refers to the level of which section in the law it is coming from. I now know that I need to translate my trades from $USD to $AUD according to the RBA's translation rates for every single trade.
But what about gains or losses on translation?
There is one major rule that overrides FX gains and losses after digging deeper. The ATO has a "$250k balance election". This will probably apply to a lot of people trading in balances below $250k a lot of the FX rules don't apply. It states:
However, the $250,000 balance election broadly enables you to disregard certain foreign currency gains and losses on certain foreign currency denominated bank accounts and credit card accounts (called qualifying forex accounts) with balances below a specified limit.
Therefore, I'm all good disregarding FX gains and losses! I just need to ensure I translate my trades on the day they occurred. It's a bit of extra admin to do unfortunately, but it is what it is.

Credit Trades

This is the scenario where we SELL a position first, collect premium, and close the position by making an opposite BUY order. Selling a naked PUT, for example.
What happens when you open the position? ATO Response:
The option is grantedCGT event D2 happens when a taxpayer grants an option. The time of the event is when the option is granted. The capital gain or loss arising is the difference between the capital proceeds and the expenditure incurred to grant the option.
This seems straight forward. We collect premium and record a capital gain.
What happens when you close the position? ATO Response:
Closing out an optionThe establishment of an ETO contract is referred to as opening a position (ASX Explanatory Booklet 'Understanding Options Trading'). A person who writes (sells) a call or put option may close out their position by taking (buying) an identical call or put option in the same series. This is referred to as the close-out of an option or the closing-out of an opening position.
CGT event C2 happens when a taxpayer's ownership of an intangible CGT asset ends. Paragraph 104-25(1)(a) of the ITAA 1997 provides that ownership of an intangible CGT asset ends by cancellation, surrender, or release or similar means.
CGT event C2 therefore happens to a taxpayer when their position under an ETO is closed out where the close-out results in the cancellation, release or discharge of the ETO.
Under subsection 104-25(3) of the ITAA 1997 you make a capital gain from CGT event C2 if the capital proceeds from the ending are more than the assets cost base. You make a capital loss if those capital proceeds are less than the assets reduced cost base.
Both CGT events (being D2 upon granting the option and C2 upon adopting the close out position) must be accounted for if applicable to a situation.
My take on this is that the BUY position that cancels out your SELL position will most often simply realise a capital loss (the entire portion of your BUY position). In effect, it 'cancels out' your original premium sold, but it's not recorded that way, it's recorded as two separate CGT events - your capital gain from CGT event D2 (SELL position), then, your capital loss from CGT event C2 (BUY position) is also recorded. In effect, they net each other out, but you don't record them as a 'netted out' number - you record them separately.
From what I understand, if you were trading as a sole tradecompany then you would record them as a netted out capital gain or loss, because the trades would be classified as trading stock but not in our case here as an individual person trading options. The example I've written below should hopefully make that clearer.
EXAMPLE:
Trade on 1 July 2020: Open position
Trade on 15 July 2020: Close position
We can see from this simple example that even though you made a gain on those trades, you still have to record the transactions separately, as first a gain, then as a loss. Note that it is not just a matter of netting off the value of the net profit collected and converting the profit to $AUD because the exchange rate will be different on the date of the opening trade and on the date of the closing trade we have to record them separately.

What if you don't close the position and the options are exercised? ATO Response:
The option is granted and then the option is exercisedUnder subsection 104-40(5) of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 (ITAA 1997) the capital gain or loss from the CGT event D2 is disregarded if the option is exercised. Subsection 134-1(1), item 1, of the ITAA 1997 refers to the consequences for the grantor of the exercise of the option.
Where the option binds the grantor to dispose of a CGT asset section 116-65 of the ITAA 1997 applies to the transaction.
Subsection 116-65(2) of the ITAA 1997 provides that the capital proceeds from the grant or disposal of the shares (CGT asset) include any payment received for granting the option. The disposal of the shares is a CGT event A1 which occurs under subsection 104-10(3) of the ITAA 1997 when the contract for disposal is entered into.
You would still make a capital gain at the happening of the CGT event D2 in the year the event occurs (the time the option is granted). That capital gain is disregarded when the option is exercised. Where the option is exercised in the subsequent tax year, the CGT event D2 gain is disregarded at that point. An amendment may be necessary to remove the gain previously included in taxable income for the year in which the CGT event D2 occurred.
This scenario is pretty unlikely - for me personally I never hold positions to expiration, but it is nice to know what happens with the tax treatment if it ultimately does come to that.

Debit Trades

What about the scenario when you want to BUY some options first, then SELL that position and close it later? Buying a CALL, for example. This case is what the ATO originally thought my request was about before I clarified with them. They stated:
When you buy an ETO, you acquire an asset (the ETO) for the amount paid for it (that is, the premium) plus any additional costs such as brokerage fees and the Australian Clearing House (ACH) fee. These costs together form the cost base of the ETO (section 109-5 of the ITAA 1997). On the close out of the position, you make a capital gain or loss equal to the difference between the cost base of the ETO and the amount received on its expiry or termination (subsection 104-25(3) of the ITAA 1997). The capital gain or loss is calculated on each parcel of options.
So it seems it is far easier to record debit trades for tax purposes. It is easier for the tax office to see that you open a position by buying it, and close it by selling it. And in that case you net off the total after selling it. This is very similar to a trading shares and the CGT treatment is in effect very similar (the main difference is that it is not coming under CGT event A1 because there is no asset to dispose of, like in a shares or property trade).

Other ATO Info (FYI)

The ATO also referred me to the following documents. They relate to some 'decisions' that they made from super funds but the same principles apply to individuals they said.
The ATO’s Interpretative Decision in relation to the tax treatment of premiums payable and receivable for exchange traded options can be found on the links below. Please note that the interpretative decisions below are in relation to self-managed superannuation funds but the same principles would apply in your situation [as an individual taxpayer, not as a super fund].
Premiums Receivable: ATO ID 2009/110

Some tips

submitted by cheese-mate-chen-c to options [link] [comments]

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi
The cryptocurrency markets are evolving and changing at an alarming rate. New projects are created on a daily basis in support of change from the old monetary system we have all come to know and hate. Immutable code, applications, decentralized governance entities and exchanges are bringing out the best of blockchain, but sometimes these projects start off with a loud eruption of activity and volume only to fade slowly when development ends or hits a standstill, or even when a clone with more innovation becomes more popular. This is a common problem in the cryptocurrency space that has effectively created and then terminated thousands of legitimate projects and ideas looking to make a difference in this new uncharted world of cryptocurrency. Innovation always catches up, this time in the form of EcoFi.

https://preview.redd.it/db42m7kcisu51.png?width=6510&format=png&auto=webp&s=f375bdf204479b7c869ecd9349f5071b068c2552

EcoFi bills itself as "an open-sourced, permission-less and censorship-resistant protocol built to power safe and responsible innovation in the Decentralized Finance space." EcoFi is focusing on putting an end to the vicious cycle or life and death of new projects by rewarding the communities strength and adoption. It plans on accomplishing this by creating a unique marketplace that builds on the principles of DeFi token pairs and an exclusive marketplace that is housed on the EcoFi website.

https://preview.redd.it/q11uhakbisu51.png?width=4234&format=png&auto=webp&s=ee7ced8f4201323e19f51fa97f17c7d315ebc9d1
The EcoFi economy will consist of 3 tokens: ECO, EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT), and Sprout (SPRT) to bring about an active and innovative marketplace.

ECO has a total supply of 10,000,000 tokens and this supply is capped. ECO is earned during limiting periods which will allow you to farm it. ECO presents an opportunity to pair it with other tokens to create new and diverse liquidity pools. Staking Liquidity tokens via the EcoFi website, users can earn SPRT tokens as rewards. These tokens can also be purchased on Uniswap. ECO's other utility will include using it to obtain unique farm-able NFT's along with curation of NFT's along with other algorithmic-ally backed assets.

EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT) will act as the governance token for the EcoFi ecosystem. It will allow holders to vote and help decide on future development, integration, and decision making in regards to the future of the ecosystem. EGT will also be utilized as a tool to receive airdropped ECO. The DAO Governance platform will be released at a later date. Early adopters and utilizers of the EcoFi economy will be rewarded in both EGT and ECO for helping share the EcoFi vision and helping build its community.

Sprout (SPRT) is the token that is rewarded for staking your ECO. As your yield begins to sprout up from staking, you will be eligible to earn highly unique NFT's not available for purchase. These NFT's will vary in scope, but will include connections to real world assets and even rare easter-egg NFT's.

The EcoFi tokens will be distributed as described below:
- 50% will be given away for public contributions
- 10% will be set aside for use as Eco Genesis Tokens
- 20% will be utilized for airdrops and farming
- 15% will be used for the Ecosystem and marketing
- 5% will be sent to the core development team
https://preview.redd.it/x6n4ywi9isu51.jpg?width=852&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=af563b39b1063792f933d933e0af6e9c16d13b64

It is important to note that from 10/23/20 to 11/3 is the EGT airdrop period. During this period, users will be airdropped 1 ECO for every 100 EGT owned. The public contribution period will also last during the same time period and it will include an ECO member sale of 5,000,000 ECO. After the DAO is live, you will be able to use your EGT to vote.
https://preview.redd.it/5fftge78isu51.jpg?width=924&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=9469ad55f3a4727d2a018fd5e0f75b27fe676d1a

The team behind EcoFi includes a diverse group of developers, artists, traders, and investors that have been a part of the Forex and Cryptocurrency landscape since 2014 with a focus on Ethereum's blockchain and environment. The team has top level Ethereum development skills which will allow for a productive and smooth launch.

https://preview.redd.it/f0h6zik5isu51.jpg?width=931&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8eca52db558901fdd20037a54f4af4885a437996
Creating a sustainable and active Cryptocurrency ecosystem is difficult over time. Providing a solution via community building/tokenomical development via a decentralized self governance reward system can be the answer to the well known project burnout problem. Unique tokenomics are a very big draw for EcoFi. Adding in unique NFT’s while also planning for the implementation of real world NFT use is not only innovative but setting EcoFi up for a strong competitive build which could potentially pave the way for further NFT usecase. Following the EcoFi community and contributing may turn into one of DeFi’s biggest game-changers.

Pertinent EcoFi Links:
- Litepaper: https://ecofi.io/ECOFI\_LITEPAPER.pdf
- Contact: [email protected]
- Medium: https://medium.com/@EcoFinance/ecofi-eclisping-the-possibilites-of-defi-64b7dcf23fc1
- Website: https://ecofi.io/
- Twitter: https://twitter.com/finance\_eco
- YouTube: https://youtube.com/channel/UCn\_pnNgrKWTsLSP5Jhi7MaQ
- Telegram: https://t.me/EcoFiOfficial
- Airdrop: https://t.me/ecofi\_airdrop\_bot


(I write articles and reviews for legitimate, interesting, up and coming cryptocurrency projects. Feel free to PM me to review your project. Thank you!)
-------------------
Disclaimer: This is not financial advice. The sole purpose of this post/article is to provide and create an informative and educated discussion regarding the project in question. Invest at your own risk.
submitted by Chrisc9234 to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi

The cryptocurrency markets are evolving and changing at an alarming rate. New projects are created on a daily basis in support of change from the old monetary system we have all come to know and hate. Immutable code, applications, decentralized governance entities and exchanges are bringing out the best of blockchain, but sometimes these projects start off with a loud eruption of activity and volume only to fade slowly when development ends or hits a standstill, or even when a clone with more innovation becomes more popular. This is a common problem in the cryptocurrency space that has effectively created and then terminated thousands of legitimate projects and ideas looking to make a difference in this new uncharted world of cryptocurrency. Innovation always catches up, this time in the form of EcoFi.

EcoFi bills itself as "an open-sourced, permission-less and censorship-resistant protocol built to power safe and responsible innovation in the Decentralized Finance space." EcoFi is focusing on putting an end to the vicious cycle or life and death of new projects by rewarding the communities strength and adoption. It plans on accomplishing this by creating a unique marketplace that builds on the principles of DeFi token pairs and an exclusive marketplace that is housed on the EcoFi website.

The EcoFi economy will consist of 3 tokens: ECO, EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT), and Sprout (SPRT) to bring about an active and innovative marketplace.

ECO has a total supply of 10,000,000 tokens and this supply is capped. ECO is earned during limiting periods which will allow you to farm it. ECO presents an opportunity to pair it with other tokens to create new and diverse liquidity pools. Staking Liquidity tokens via the EcoFi website, users can earn SPRT tokens as rewards. These tokens can also be purchased on Uniswap. ***ECO'***s other utility will include using it to obtain unique farm-able NFT's along with curation of NFT's along with other algorithmic-ally backed assets.

EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT) will act as the governance token for the EcoFi ecosystem. It will allow holders to vote and help decide on future development, integration, and decision making in regards to the future of the ecosystem. EGT will also be utilized as a tool to receive airdropped ECO. The DAO Governance platform will be released at a later date. Early adopters and utilizers of the EcoFi economy will be rewarded in both EGT and ECO for helping share the EcoFi vision and helping build its community.

Sprout (SPRT) is the token that is rewarded for staking your ECO. As your yield begins to sprout up from staking, you will be eligible to earn highly unique NFT's not available for purchase. These NFT's will vary in scope, but will include connections to real world assets and even rare easter-egg NFT's.

The EcoFi tokens will be distributed as described below:
- 50% will be given away for public contributions
- 10% will be set aside for use as Eco Genesis Tokens
- 20% will be utilized for airdrops and farming
- 15% will be used for the Ecosystem and marketing
- 5% will be sent to the core development team

It is important to note that from 10/23/20 to 11/3 is the EGT airdrop period. During this period, users will be airdropped 1 ECO for every 100 EGT owned. The public contribution period will also last during the same time period and it will include an ECO member sale of 5,000,000 ECO. After the DAO is live, you will be able to use your EGT to vote.

The team behind EcoFi includes a diverse group of developers, artists, traders, and investors that have been a part of the Forex and Cryptocurrency landscape since 2014 with a focus on Ethereum's blockchain and environment. The team has top level Ethereum development skills which will allow for a productive and smooth launch.

Creating a sustainable and active Cryptocurrency ecosystem is difficult over time. Providing a solution via community building/tokenomical development via a decentralized self governance reward system can be the answer to the well known project burnout problem. Unique tokenomics are a very big draw for EcoFi. Adding in unique NFT’s while also planning for the implementation of real world NFT use is not only innovative but setting EcoFi up for a strong competitive build which could potentially pave the way for further NFT usecase. Following the EcoFi community and contributing may turn into one of DeFi’s biggest game-changers.

Pertinent EcoFi Links:
- Litepaper: https://ecofi.io/ECOFI\_LITEPAPER.pdf
- Contact: [email protected]
- Medium: https://medium.com/@EcoFinance/ecofi-eclisping-the-possibilites-of-defi-64b7dcf23fc1
- Website: https://ecofi.io/
- Twitter: https://twitter.com/finance\_eco
- YouTube: https://youtube.com/channel/UCn\_pnNgrKWTsLSP5Jhi7MaQ
- Telegram: https://t.me/EcoFiOfficial
- Airdrop: https://t.me/ecofi\_airdrop\_bot


(I write articles and reviews for legitimate, interesting, up and coming cryptocurrency projects. Feel free to PM me to review your project. Thank you!)
-------------------
Disclaimer: This is not financial advice. The sole purpose of this post/article is to provide and create an informative and educated discussion regarding the project in question. Invest at your own risk.
submitted by Chrisc9234 to CryptoMoonShots [link] [comments]

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi
The cryptocurrency markets are evolving and changing at an alarming rate. New projects are created on a daily basis in support of change from the old monetary system we have all come to know and hate. Immutable code, applications, decentralized governance entities and exchanges are bringing out the best of blockchain, but sometimes these projects start off with a loud eruption of activity and volume only to fade slowly when development ends or hits a standstill, or even when a clone with more innovation becomes more popular. This is a common problem in the cryptocurrency space that has effectively created and then terminated thousands of legitimate projects and ideas looking to make a difference in this new uncharted world of cryptocurrency. Innovation always catches up, this time in the form of EcoFi.

https://preview.redd.it/b6mapsxtjsu51.png?width=6510&format=png&auto=webp&s=89d799c00c9743fe07298d65fac88f6cf5adf998

EcoFi bills itself as "an open-sourced, permission-less and censorship-resistant protocol built to power safe and responsible innovation in the Decentralized Finance space." EcoFi is focusing on putting an end to the vicious cycle or life and death of new projects by rewarding the communities strength and adoption. It plans on accomplishing this by creating a unique marketplace that builds on the principles of DeFi token pairs and an exclusive marketplace that is housed on the EcoFi website.

https://preview.redd.it/akrsqrbujsu51.png?width=4234&format=png&auto=webp&s=8504d94735788ee75fbea54417450c6fdc3ccffb
The EcoFi economy will consist of 3 tokens: ECO, EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT), and Sprout (SPRT) to bring about an active and innovative marketplace.

ECO has a total supply of 10,000,000 tokens and this supply is capped. ECO is earned during limiting periods which will allow you to farm it. ECO presents an opportunity to pair it with other tokens to create new and diverse liquidity pools. Staking Liquidity tokens via the EcoFi website, users can earn SPRT tokens as rewards. These tokens can also be purchased on Uniswap. ***ECO'***s other utility will include using it to obtain unique farm-able NFT's along with curation of NFT's along with other algorithmic-ally backed assets.

EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT) will act as the governance token for the EcoFi ecosystem. It will allow holders to vote and help decide on future development, integration, and decision making in regards to the future of the ecosystem. EGT will also be utilized as a tool to receive airdropped ECO. The DAO Governance platform will be released at a later date. Early adopters and utilizers of the EcoFi economy will be rewarded in both EGT and ECO for helping share the EcoFi vision and helping build its community.

Sprout (SPRT) is the token that is rewarded for staking your ECO. As your yield begins to sprout up from staking, you will be eligible to earn highly unique NFT's not available for purchase. These NFT's will vary in scope, but will include connections to real world assets and even rare easter-egg NFT's.

The EcoFi tokens will be distributed as described below:
- 50% will be given away for public contributions
- 10% will be set aside for use as Eco Genesis Tokens
- 20% will be utilized for airdrops and farming
- 15% will be used for the Ecosystem and marketing
- 5% will be sent to the core development team
https://preview.redd.it/h8l14ihwjsu51.jpg?width=852&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ef240f6bbee08301b52ea971a3e97a475cb656b6
It is important to note that from 10/23/20 to 11/3 is the EGT airdrop period. During this period, users will be airdropped 1 ECO for every 100 EGT owned. The public contribution period will also last during the same time period and it will include an ECO member sale of 5,000,000 ECO. After the DAO is live, you will be able to use your EGT to vote.
https://preview.redd.it/0145p4xvjsu51.jpg?width=924&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a3996925f2de9dbdd2297c5d5e3824756cb87df1
The team behind EcoFi includes a diverse group of developers, artists, traders, and investors that have been a part of the Forex and Cryptocurrency landscape since 2014 with a focus on Ethereum's blockchain and environment. The team has top level Ethereum development skills which will allow for a productive and smooth launch.

https://preview.redd.it/d7dc6v8vjsu51.jpg?width=931&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=11263b95088bb77fbcecd88f96a1b414aaaf9281
Creating a sustainable and active Cryptocurrency ecosystem is difficult over time. Providing a solution via community building/tokenomical development via a decentralized self governance reward system can be the answer to the well known project burnout problem. Unique tokenomics are a very big draw for EcoFi. Adding in unique NFT’s while also planning for the implementation of real world NFT use is not only innovative but setting EcoFi up for a strong competitive build which could potentially pave the way for further NFT usecase. Following the EcoFi community and contributing may turn into one of DeFi’s biggest game-changers.

Pertinent EcoFi Links:
- Litepaper: https://ecofi.io/ECOFI\_LITEPAPER.pdf
- Contact: [email protected]
- Medium: https://medium.com/@EcoFinance/ecofi-eclisping-the-possibilites-of-defi-64b7dcf23fc1
- Website: https://ecofi.io/
- Twitter: https://twitter.com/finance\_eco
- YouTube: https://youtube.com/channel/UCn\_pnNgrKWTsLSP5Jhi7MaQ
- Telegram: https://t.me/EcoFiOfficial
- Airdrop: https://t.me/ecofi\_airdrop\_bot

(I write articles and reviews for legitimate, interesting, up and coming cryptocurrency projects. Feel free to PM me to review your project. Thank you!)
-------------------
Disclaimer: This is not financial advice. The sole purpose of this post/article is to provide and create an informative and educated discussion regarding the project in question. Invest at your own risk.
submitted by Chrisc9234 to defi [link] [comments]

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi
The cryptocurrency markets are evolving and changing at an alarming rate. New projects are created on a daily basis in support of change from the old monetary system we have all come to know and hate. Immutable code, applications, decentralized governance entities and exchanges are bringing out the best of blockchain, but sometimes these projects start off with a loud eruption of activity and volume only to fade slowly when development ends or hits a standstill, or even when a clone with more innovation becomes more popular. This is a common problem in the cryptocurrency space that has effectively created and then terminated thousands of legitimate projects and ideas looking to make a difference in this new uncharted world of cryptocurrency. Innovation always catches up, this time in the form of EcoFi.

https://preview.redd.it/up8ewyohjsu51.png?width=6510&format=png&auto=webp&s=efc46fa2b0c10c0fccb7170a259a9ee8e05d54c6

EcoFi bills itself as "an open-sourced, permission-less and censorship-resistant protocol built to power safe and responsible innovation in the Decentralized Finance space." EcoFi is focusing on putting an end to the vicious cycle or life and death of new projects by rewarding the communities strength and adoption. It plans on accomplishing this by creating a unique marketplace that builds on the principles of DeFi token pairs and an exclusive marketplace that is housed on the EcoFi website.

https://preview.redd.it/kgw77eeijsu51.png?width=4234&format=png&auto=webp&s=ec77c446521a420f76f17070f665e3e7efc1d36f
The EcoFi economy will consist of 3 tokens: ECO, EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT), and Sprout (SPRT) to bring about an active and innovative marketplace.

ECO has a total supply of 10,000,000 tokens and this supply is capped. ECO is earned during limiting periods which will allow you to farm it. ECO presents an opportunity to pair it with other tokens to create new and diverse liquidity pools. Staking Liquidity tokens via the EcoFi website, users can earn SPRT tokens as rewards. These tokens can also be purchased on Uniswap. ***ECO'***s other utility will include using it to obtain unique farm-able NFT's along with curation of NFT's along with other algorithmic-ally backed assets.

EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT) will act as the governance token for the EcoFi ecosystem. It will allow holders to vote and help decide on future development, integration, and decision making in regards to the future of the ecosystem. EGT will also be utilized as a tool to receive airdropped ECO. The DAO Governance platform will be released at a later date. Early adopters and utilizers of the EcoFi economy will be rewarded in both EGT and ECO for helping share the EcoFi vision and helping build its community.

Sprout (SPRT) is the token that is rewarded for staking your ECO. As your yield begins to sprout up from staking, you will be eligible to earn highly unique NFT's not available for purchase. These NFT's will vary in scope, but will include connections to real world assets and even rare easter-egg NFT's.

The EcoFi tokens will be distributed as described below:
- 50% will be given away for public contributions
- 10% will be set aside for use as Eco Genesis Tokens
- 20% will be utilized for airdrops and farming
- 15% will be used for the Ecosystem and marketing
- 5% will be sent to the core development team

https://preview.redd.it/2g7xy9ahjsu51.jpg?width=852&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3674d9b107ad96bea6ea210df9cd1a2d1ab98480

It is important to note that from 10/23/20 to 11/3 is the EGT airdrop period. During this period, users will be airdropped 1 ECO for every 100 EGT owned. The public contribution period will also last during the same time period and it will include an ECO member sale of 5,000,000 ECO. After the DAO is live, you will be able to use your EGT to vote.

https://preview.redd.it/kacfw6xfjsu51.jpg?width=924&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e02568faa9eb098f6b959654830a0541cb90bdc6

The team behind EcoFi includes a diverse group of developers, artists, traders, and investors that have been a part of the Forex and Cryptocurrency landscape since 2014 with a focus on Ethereum's blockchain and environment. The team has top level Ethereum development skills which will allow for a productive and smooth launch.

https://preview.redd.it/jhldatdejsu51.jpg?width=931&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=7ce799eef6ad43e341aa75598f0eb014310c0f22
Creating a sustainable and active Cryptocurrency ecosystem is difficult over time. Providing a solution via community building/tokenomical development via a decentralized self governance reward system can be the answer to the well known project burnout problem. Unique tokenomics are a very big draw for EcoFi. Adding in unique NFT’s while also planning for the implementation of real world NFT use is not only innovative but setting EcoFi up for a strong competitive build which could potentially pave the way for further NFT usecase. Following the EcoFi community and contributing may turn into one of DeFi’s biggest game-changers.

Pertinent EcoFi Links:
- Litepaper: https://ecofi.io/ECOFI\_LITEPAPER.pdf
- Contact: [email protected]
- Medium: https://medium.com/@EcoFinance/ecofi-eclisping-the-possibilites-of-defi-64b7dcf23fc1
- Website: https://ecofi.io/
- Twitter: https://twitter.com/finance\_eco
- YouTube: https://youtube.com/channel/UCn\_pnNgrKWTsLSP5Jhi7MaQ
- Telegram: https://t.me/EcoFiOfficial
- Airdrop: https://t.me/ecofi\_airdrop\_bot

(I write articles and reviews for legitimate, interesting, up and coming cryptocurrency projects. Feel free to PM me to review your project. Thank you!)
-------------------
Disclaimer: This is not financial advice. The sole purpose of this post/article is to provide and create an informative and educated discussion regarding the project in question. Invest at your own risk.
submitted by Chrisc9234 to ethtrader [link] [comments]

No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
submitted by GaslightEveryone to u/GaslightEveryone [link] [comments]

CRYPTOCURRENCY BITCOIN

CRYPTOCURRENCY BITCOIN
Bitcoin Table of contents expand: 1. What is Bitcoin? 2. Understanding Bitcoin 3. How Bitcoin Works 4. What's a Bitcoin Worth? 5. How Bitcoin Began 6. Who Invented Bitcoin? 7. Before Satoshi 8. Why Is Satoshi Anonymous? 9. The Suspects 10. Can Satoshi's Identity Be Proven? 11. Receiving Bitcoins As Payment 12. Working For Bitcoins 13. Bitcoin From Interest Payments 14. Bitcoins From Gambling 15. Investing in Bitcoins 16. Risks of Bitcoin Investing 17. Bitcoin Regulatory Risk 18. Security Risk of Bitcoins 19. Insurance Risk 20. Risk of Bitcoin Fraud 21. Market Risk 22. Bitcoin's Tax Risk What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is a digital currency created in January 2009. It follows the ideas set out in a white paper by the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto, whose true identity is yet to be verified. Bitcoin offers the promise of lower transaction fees than traditional online payment mechanisms and is operated by a decentralized authority, unlike government-issued currencies.
There are no physical bitcoins, only balances kept on a public ledger in the cloud, that – along with all Bitcoin transactions – is verified by a massive amount of computing power. Bitcoins are not issued or backed by any banks or governments, nor are individual bitcoins valuable as a commodity. Despite it not being legal tender, Bitcoin charts high on popularity, and has triggered the launch of other virtual currencies collectively referred to as Altcoins.
Understanding Bitcoin Bitcoin is a type of cryptocurrency: Balances are kept using public and private "keys," which are long strings of numbers and letters linked through the mathematical encryption algorithm that was used to create them. The public key (comparable to a bank account number) serves as the address which is published to the world and to which others may send bitcoins. The private key (comparable to an ATM PIN) is meant to be a guarded secret and only used to authorize Bitcoin transmissions. Style notes: According to the official Bitcoin Foundation, the word "Bitcoin" is capitalized in the context of referring to the entity or concept, whereas "bitcoin" is written in the lower case when referring to a quantity of the currency (e.g. "I traded 20 bitcoin") or the units themselves. The plural form can be either "bitcoin" or "bitcoins."
How Bitcoin Works Bitcoin is one of the first digital currencies to use peer-to-peer technology to facilitate instant payments. The independent individuals and companies who own the governing computing power and participate in the Bitcoin network, also known as "miners," are motivated by rewards (the release of new bitcoin) and transaction fees paid in bitcoin. These miners can be thought of as the decentralized authority enforcing the credibility of the Bitcoin network. New bitcoin is being released to the miners at a fixed, but periodically declining rate, such that the total supply of bitcoins approaches 21 million. One bitcoin is divisible to eight decimal places (100 millionths of one bitcoin), and this smallest unit is referred to as a Satoshi. If necessary, and if the participating miners accept the change, Bitcoin could eventually be made divisible to even more decimal places. Bitcoin mining is the process through which bitcoins are released to come into circulation. Basically, it involves solving a computationally difficult puzzle to discover a new block, which is added to the blockchain and receiving a reward in the form of a few bitcoins. The block reward was 50 new bitcoins in 2009; it decreases every four years. As more and more bitcoins are created, the difficulty of the mining process – that is, the amount of computing power involved – increases. The mining difficulty began at 1.0 with Bitcoin's debut back in 2009; at the end of the year, it was only 1.18. As of February 2019, the mining difficulty is over 6.06 billion. Once, an ordinary desktop computer sufficed for the mining process; now, to combat the difficulty level, miners must use faster hardware like Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC), more advanced processing units like Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), etc.
What's a Bitcoin Worth? In 2017 alone, the price of Bitcoin rose from a little under $1,000 at the beginning of the year to close to $19,000, ending the year more than 1,400% higher. Bitcoin's price is also quite dependent on the size of its mining network since the larger the network is, the more difficult – and thus more costly – it is to produce new bitcoins. As a result, the price of bitcoin has to increase as its cost of production also rises. The Bitcoin mining network's aggregate power has more than tripled over the past twelve months.
How Bitcoin Began
Aug. 18, 2008: The domain name bitcoin.org is registered. Today, at least, this domain is "WhoisGuard Protected," meaning the identity of the person who registered it is not public information.
Oct. 31, 2008: Someone using the name Satoshi Nakamoto makes an announcement on The Cryptography Mailing list at metzdowd.com: "I've been working on a new electronic cash system that's fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party. The paper is available at http://www.bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf." This link leads to the now-famous white paper published on bitcoin.org entitled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System." This paper would become the Magna Carta for how Bitcoin operates today.
Jan. 3, 2009: The first Bitcoin block is mined, Block 0. This is also known as the "genesis block" and contains the text: "The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks," perhaps as proof that the block was mined on or after that date, and perhaps also as relevant political commentary.
Jan. 8, 2009: The first version of the Bitcoin software is announced on The Cryptography Mailing list.
Jan. 9, 2009: Block 1 is mined, and Bitcoin mining commences in earnest.
Who Invented Bitcoin?
No one knows. Not conclusively, at any rate. Satoshi Nakamoto is the name associated with the person or group of people who released the original Bitcoin white paper in 2008 and worked on the original Bitcoin software that was released in 2009. The Bitcoin protocol requires users to enter a birthday upon signup, and we know that an individual named Satoshi Nakamoto registered and put down April 5 as a birth date. And that's about it.
Before Satoshi
Though it is tempting to believe the media's spin that Satoshi Nakamoto is a solitary, quixotic genius who created Bitcoin out of thin air, such innovations do not happen in a vacuum. All major scientific discoveries, no matter how original-seeming, were built on previously existing research. There are precursors to Bitcoin: Adam Back’s Hashcash, invented in 1997, and subsequently Wei Dai’s b-money, Nick Szabo’s bit gold and Hal Finney’s Reusable Proof of Work. The Bitcoin white paper itself cites Hashcash and b-money, as well as various other works spanning several research fields.
Why Is Satoshi Anonymous?
There are two primary motivations for keeping Bitcoin's inventor keeping his or her or their identity secret. One is privacy. As Bitcoin has gained in popularity – becoming something of a worldwide phenomenon – Satoshi Nakamoto would likely garner a lot of attention from the media and from governments.
The other reason is safety. Looking at 2009 alone, 32,489 blocks were mined; at the then-reward rate of 50 BTC per block, the total payout in 2009 was 1,624,500 BTC, which at today’s prices is over $900 million. One may conclude that only Satoshi and perhaps a few other people were mining through 2009 and that they possess a majority of that $900 million worth of BTC. Someone in possession of that much BTC could become a target of criminals, especially since bitcoins are less like stocks and more like cash, where the private keys needed to authorize spending could be printed out and literally kept under a mattress. While it's likely the inventor of Bitcoin would take precautions to make any extortion-induced transfers traceable, remaining anonymous is a good way for Satoshi to limit exposure.
The Suspects
Numerous people have been suggested as possible Satoshi Nakamoto by major media outlets. Oct. 10, 2011, The New Yorker published an article speculating that Nakamoto might be Irish cryptography student Michael Clear or economic sociologist Vili Lehdonvirta. A day later, Fast Company suggested that Nakamoto could be a group of three people – Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry – who together appear on a patent related to secure communications that were filed two months before bitcoin.org was registered. A Vice article published in May 2013 added more suspects to the list, including Gavin Andresen, the Bitcoin project’s lead developer; Jed McCaleb, co-founder of now-defunct Bitcoin exchange Mt. Gox; and famed Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki.
In December 2013, Techcrunch published an interview with researcher Skye Grey who claimed textual analysis of published writings shows a link between Satoshi and bit-gold creator Nick Szabo. And perhaps most famously, in March 2014, Newsweek ran a cover article claiming that Satoshi is actually an individual named Satoshi Nakamoto – a 64-year-old Japanese-American engineer living in California. The list of suspects is long, and all the individuals deny being Satoshi.
Can Satoshi's Identity Be Proven?
It would seem even early collaborators on the project don’t have verifiable proof of Satoshi’s identity. To reveal conclusively who Satoshi Nakamoto is, a definitive link would need to be made between his/her activity with Bitcoin and his/her identity. That could come in the form of linking the party behind the domain registration of bitcoin.org, email and forum accounts used by Satoshi Nakamoto, or ownership of some portion of the earliest mined bitcoins. Even though the bitcoins Satoshi likely possesses are traceable on the blockchain, it seems he/she has yet to cash them out in a way that reveals his/her identity. If Satoshi were to move his/her bitcoins to an exchange today, this might attract attention, but it seems unlikely that a well-funded and successful exchange would betray a customer's privacy.
Receiving Bitcoins As Payment
Bitcoins can be accepted as a means of payment for products sold or services provided. If you have a brick and mortar store, just display a sign saying “Bitcoin Accepted Here” and many of your customers may well take you up on it; the transactions can be handled with the requisite hardware terminal or wallet address through QR codes and touch screen apps. An online business can easily accept bitcoins by just adding this payment option to the others it offers, like credit cards, PayPal, etc. Online payments will require a Bitcoin merchant tool (an external processor like Coinbase or BitPay).
Working For Bitcoins
Those who are self-employed can get paid for a job in bitcoins. There are several websites/job boards which are dedicated to the digital currency:
Work For Bitcoin brings together work seekers and prospective employers through its websiteCoinality features jobs – freelance, part-time and full-time – that offer payment in bitcoins, as well as Dogecoin and LitecoinJobs4Bitcoins, part of reddit.comBitGigs
Bitcoin From Interest Payments
Another interesting way (literally) to earn bitcoins is by lending them out and being repaid in the currency. Lending can take three forms – direct lending to someone you know; through a website which facilitates peer-to-peer transactions, pairing borrowers and lenders; or depositing bitcoins in a virtual bank that offers a certain interest rate for Bitcoin accounts. Some such sites are Bitbond, BitLendingClub, and BTCjam. Obviously, you should do due diligence on any third-party site.
Bitcoins From Gambling
It’s possible to play at casinos that cater to Bitcoin aficionados, with options like online lotteries, jackpots, spread betting, and other games. Of course, the pros and cons and risks that apply to any sort of gambling and betting endeavors are in force here too.
Investing in Bitcoins
There are many Bitcoin supporters who believe that digital currency is the future. Those who endorse it are of the view that it facilitates a much faster, no-fee payment system for transactions across the globe. Although it is not itself any backed by any government or central bank, bitcoin can be exchanged for traditional currencies; in fact, its exchange rate against the dollar attracts potential investors and traders interested in currency plays. Indeed, one of the primary reasons for the growth of digital currencies like Bitcoin is that they can act as an alternative to national fiat money and traditional commodities like gold.
In March 2014, the IRS stated that all virtual currencies, including bitcoins, would be taxed as property rather than currency. Gains or losses from bitcoins held as capital will be realized as capital gains or losses, while bitcoins held as inventory will incur ordinary gains or losses.
Like any other asset, the principle of buying low and selling high applies to bitcoins. The most popular way of amassing the currency is through buying on a Bitcoin exchange, but there are many other ways to earn and own bitcoins. Here are a few options which Bitcoin enthusiasts can explore.
Risks of Bitcoin Investing
Though Bitcoin was not designed as a normal equity investment (no shares have been issued), some speculative investors were drawn to the digital money after it appreciated rapidly in May 2011 and again in November 2013. Thus, many people purchase bitcoin for its investment value rather than as a medium of exchange.
However, their lack of guaranteed value and digital nature means the purchase and use of bitcoins carries several inherent risks. Many investor alerts have been issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), and other agencies.
The concept of a virtual currency is still novel and, compared to traditional investments, Bitcoin doesn't have much of a long-term track record or history of credibility to back it. With their increasing use, bitcoins are becoming less experimental every day, of course; still, after eight years, they (like all digital currencies) remain in a development phase, still evolving. "It is pretty much the highest-risk, highest-return investment that you can possibly make,” says Barry Silbert, CEO of Digital Currency Group, which builds and invests in Bitcoin and blockchain companies.
Bitcoin Regulatory Risk
Investing money into Bitcoin in any of its many guises is not for the risk-averse. Bitcoins are a rival to government currency and may be used for black market transactions, money laundering, illegal activities or tax evasion. As a result, governments may seek to regulate, restrict or ban the use and sale of bitcoins, and some already have. Others are coming up with various rules. For example, in 2015, the New York State Department of Financial Services finalized regulations that would require companies dealing with the buy, sell, transfer or storage of bitcoins to record the identity of customers, have a compliance officer and maintain capital reserves. The transactions worth $10,000 or more will have to be recorded and reported.
Although more agencies will follow suit, issuing rules and guidelines, the lack of uniform regulations about bitcoins (and other virtual currency) raises questions over their longevity, liquidity, and universality.
Security Risk of Bitcoins
Bitcoin exchanges are entirely digital and, as with any virtual system, are at risk from hackers, malware and operational glitches. If a thief gains access to a Bitcoin owner's computer hard drive and steals his private encryption key, he could transfer the stolen Bitcoins to another account. (Users can prevent this only if bitcoins are stored on a computer which is not connected to the internet, or else by choosing to use a paper wallet – printing out the Bitcoin private keys and addresses, and not keeping them on a computer at all.) Hackers can also target Bitcoin exchanges, gaining access to thousands of accounts and digital wallets where bitcoins are stored. One especially notorious hacking incident took place in 2014, when Mt. Gox, a Bitcoin exchange in Japan, was forced to close down after millions of dollars worth of bitcoins were stolen.
This is particularly problematic once you remember that all Bitcoin transactions are permanent and irreversible. It's like dealing with cash: Any transaction carried out with bitcoins can only be reversed if the person who has received them refunds them. There is no third party or a payment processor, as in the case of a debit or credit card – hence, no source of protection or appeal if there is a problem.
Insurance Risk
Some investments are insured through the Securities Investor Protection Corporation. Normal bank accounts are insured through the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) up to a certain amount depending on the jurisdiction. Bitcoin exchanges and Bitcoin accounts are not insured by any type of federal or government program.
Risk of Bitcoin Fraud
While Bitcoin uses private key encryption to verify owners and register transactions, fraudsters and scammers may attempt to sell false bitcoins. For instance, in July 2013, the SEC brought legal action against an operator of a Bitcoin-related Ponzi scheme.
Market Risk
Like with any investment, Bitcoin values can fluctuate. Indeed, the value of the currency has seen wild swings in price over its short existence. Subject to high volume buying and selling on exchanges, it has a high sensitivity to “news." According to the CFPB, the price of bitcoins fell by 61% in a single day in 2013, while the one-day price drop in 2014 has been as big as 80%.
If fewer people begin to accept Bitcoin as a currency, these digital units may lose value and could become worthless. There is already plenty of competition, and though Bitcoin has a huge lead over the other 100-odd digital currencies that have sprung up, thanks to its brand recognition and venture capital money, a technological break-through in the form of a better virtual coin is always a threat.
Bitcoin's Tax Risk
As bitcoin is ineligible to be included in any tax-advantaged retirement accounts, there are no good, legal options to shield investments from taxation.
SPONSORED
Start with ¥3000 trading bonus
Trade forex and CFDs on stock indices, commodities, metals and energies with alicensed and regulated broker. For all clients who open their first real account, XM offers a¥3000 trading bonus to test the XM products and services without any initial deposit needed. Learn more about how you can trade from your PC and Mac, or from a variety of mobile devices.
Compare Investment Accounts
Advertiser Disclosure
Related Terms
Satoshi
The satoshi is the smallest unit of the bitcoin cryptocurrency. It is named after Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of the protocol used in block chains and the bitcoin cryptocurrency.
Chartalism Chartalism is a non-mainstream theory of money that emphasizes the impact of government policies and activities on the value of money.
Satoshi Nakamoto The name used by the unknown creator of the protocol used in the bitcoin cryptocurrency. Satoshi Nakamoto is closely-associated with blockchain technology.
Bitcoin Mining, Explained Breaking down everything you need to know about Bitcoin Mining, from Blockchain and Block Rewards to Proof-of-Work and Mining Pools.
Understanding Bitcoin Unlimited Bitcoin Unlimited is a proposed upgrade to Bitcoin Core that allows larger block sizes. The upgrade is designed to improve transaction speed through scale.
Blockchain Explained
A guide to help you understand what blockchain is and how it can be used by industries. You've probably encountered a definition like this: “blockchain is a distributed, decentralized, public ledger." But blockchain is easier to understand than it sounds.
Top 6 Books to Learn About Bitcoin About UsAdvertiseContactPrivacy PolicyTerms of UseCareers Investopedia is part of the Dotdash publishing family.The Balance Lifewire TripSavvy The Spruceand more
By Satoshi Nakamoto
Read it once, go read other crypto stuff, read it again… keep doing this until the whole document makes sense. It’ll take a while, but you’ll get there. This is the original whitepaper introducing and explaining Bitcoin, and there’s really nothing better out there to understand on the subject.
“What is needed is an electronic payment system based on cryptographic proof instead of trust, allowing any two willing parties to transact directly with each other without the need for a trusted third party

submitted by adrian_morrison to BlockchainNews [link] [comments]

Acute Growth of Algorithm Trading Market Opportunity Assessments 2019-2023

Acute Growth of Algorithm Trading Market Opportunity Assessments 2019-2023
Algorithm Trading Market
Research report comes up with the size of the global Algorithm Trading Market for the base year 2019 and the forecast between 2019 and 2023. Market value has been estimated considering the application and regional segments, market share, and size, while the forecast for each product type and application segment has been provided for the global and local markets.
The Algorithm Trading report offers detailed profiles of the key players to bring out a clear view of the competitive landscape of the Algorithm Trading Outlook. It also comprehends market new product analysis, financial overview, strategies and marketing trends.
Major Manufacturer Detail: Thomson Reuters, 63 moons, InfoReach, Argo SE, MetaQuotes Software, Automated Trading SoftTech, Tethys, Trading Technologies, Tata Consulting Services, Vela, Virtu Financial, Symphony Fintech, Kuberre Systems, iRageCapital, QuantCore Capital Management
Get a Free PDF Sample Copy! Click Here: https://www.acquiremarketresearch.com/sample-request/205792/
The report reckons a complete view of the world Algorithm Trading market by classifying it in terms of application and region. These segments are examined by current and future trends. Regional segmentation incorporates current and future demand for them in North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, and the Middle East. The report collectively covers specific application segments of the market in each region.
Types of Algorithm Trading covered are: Forex Algorithm Trading, Stock Algorithm Trading, Fund Algorithm Trading, Bond Algorithm Trading, Cryptographic Algorithm Trading
Applications of Algorithm Trading covered are: large Enterprise, SME
Use Corporate ID to avail Discount on this Algorithm Trading Market Report report: https://www.acquiremarketresearch.com/discount-request/205792/
Regional Analysis For Algorithm Trading Market
North America (The United States, Canada, and Mexico) Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia, and Italy) Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, and Southeast Asia) South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, etc.) The Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa)
Table of Contents:
Study Coverage: It includes key manufacturers covered, key market segments, the scope of products offered in the global Algorithm Trading market, years considered, and study objectives. Additionally, it touches the segmentation study provided in the report on the basis of the type of product and application. Executive summary: It gives a summary of key studies, market growth rate, competitive landscape, market drivers, trends, and issues, and macroscopic indicators. Production by Region: Here, the report provides information related to import and export, production, revenue, and key players of all regional markets studied. Profile of Manufacturers: Each player profiled in this section is studied on the basis of SWOT analysis, their products, production, value, capacity, and other vital factors.
Reasons to buy:
• In-depth analysis of the market on the global and regional level. • Major changes in market dynamics and competitive landscape. • Segmentation on the basis of type, application, geography, and others. • Historical and future market research in terms of size, share, growth, volume & sales. • Major changes and assessment in market dynamics & developments. • Industry size & share analysis with industry growth and trends. • Emerging key segments and regions. • Key business strategies by major market players and their key methods. • The research report covers size, share, trends and growth analysis of the Algorithm Trading Market on the global and regional level.
Get Full Report Description, TOC, Table of Figures, Chart, etc. @ https://www.acquiremarketresearch.com/industry-reports/algorithm-trading-market/205792/
In conclusion, the Algorithm Trading Market report is a reliable source for accessing the Market data that will exponentially accelerate your business. The report provides the principle locale, economic scenarios with the item value, benefit, supply, limit, generation, request, Market development rate, and figure and so on. Besides, the report presents a new task SWOT analysis, speculation attainability investigation, and venture return investigation.
submitted by hannah_jack to TechInsightreports [link] [comments]

Investing in USTs: to hedge or not to hedge?

Source: UniCredit (dated June 2018)
submitted by wumzao to econmonitor [link] [comments]

BCNEX The Ultimate Blockchain Trading Platform

My name is Alex and today again there is a small review for you, today, in my opinion, the most promising project.
Bcnex is more than just another generic exchange. It’s a next generation ecosystem for the digital age designed mainstream adoption. Bcnex will offer a full-fledged solution for crypto with the intention of maximizing customer value our user-friendly. Framework offers seamless integration between watching technology and traditional exchanges solving existing problems of the current digital asset sectors to maximize traders profit and market liquidity. We revolutionize cryptocurrency trading by making it accessible and reliable for everyone. Bcnex — the ultimate blockchain trading platform.
Bcnex is a secure, reliable and user-centered blockchain trading platform. It’s a one-stop solution for trading Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin and other digital currencies with ease.
Bcnex is a full-service ecosystem for the purchase, exchange and trading of blockchain based tokens and a wide range of digital assets. It is a customer-centric, highly secure and stable trading platform built on microservices architecture that meets the most stringent customer requirements.
The Ultimate Blockchain Trading Platform
A place to buy, exchange and trade blockchain-based tokens and a wide range of digital assets in Vietnam and the rest of the world. Since 2006 when we first joined the Forex market, we have been researching and developing a number of Forex automated trading systems. In 2009, we deployed a real-time data application system to handle penny auction transactions and system order matching, and eventually to operate the trading platform for our foreign partners.
Customers Come First
Bcnex will continue to mature and improve to give its users the best trading experience possible. That is the core principle of our business philosophy.
Why Choose Bcnex?
Safety and Stability
Bcnex is a highly secure and stable trading platform built on microservices architecture that meets the most stringent customer requirements
Customer Oriented
Users will be provided with a user-friendly, proprietary platform that gives them the best trading experiences, both in our desktop and mobile App
Institutional-grade Trading Engine
The fast, accurate and low latency trading engine with flexible scalability can handle up to 2,000,000 orders per second
High Liquidity
With a rich and abundant source of liquidity, Bcnex ensures that every transaction on the system is executed without delays and multiple intermediaries.
Diverse Market
In addition to supporting a wide range of mainstream cryptocurrencies, we constantly expand our offering with other quality tokens
24/7 Dedicated Support
Our team works around the clock to answer any questions you may have, resolving technical and business issues promptly
BCNX Token
Bcnex operates with a native token named BCNX. There will be exactly 200,000,000 (two hundred million) BCNX issued, and the quantity will never increase. BCNX is an ERC223 standard token released on the Ethereum blockchain.
Token Usage
BCNX is used to trade, buy and sell other cryptocurrencies on Bcnex, and can also be used to pay transaction fees and receive incentives of up to 75%.
ERC223 Standard
BCNX is developed in accordance with the ERC223 standard to improve security, minimize token loss and bring more practical benefits to users in the Bcnex ecosystem.
Bcnex Coin Burn
Limiting the total supply of BCNX by burning tokens is the basis of Bcnex’s business model. This will help BCNX's value overtake other tokens on the crypto trading market.
Token Details
TOKEN NAME - BCNX
TOKEN TYPE - ERC223
TOKEN PRICE - $0.15-$0.45
TOTAL SUPPLY - 200,000,000
SOFT CAP - $2,000,000
HARD CAP - $15,000,000
MINIMUM INVESTMENT - $100
MINIMUM INVESTMENT (ANGEL INVESTORS) - $5000
ACCEPTED CURRENCIES - BTC, ETH, BCN, USDT
Web: https://www.bcnex.net/
Whitepaper => https://www.bcnex.net/docs/BCNEX_WP_ENG.pdf
submitted by haa231900 to CryptocurrencyICO [link] [comments]

How I use Volatility to my advantage (UK US open, late US etc)

[Only applies to M30 and lower]
What is volatility?
Volatility is the degree of variation in price of a given asset on a defined timeframe. When price moves quickly, market volatility increases. When price consolidates, market volatility decreases (simple definition). It is like the speedometer in our cars.
I usually add an Average True Range (ATR) on my charts to gauge approximately market volatility or market nervousness. However, it is not necessary, when you look at a chart you are able to tell if price is spiking, trending or consolidating.
Volatility is part of any strategy. It gives an expectancy toward future price action. In general, when market volatility is low, we expect significant support and resistance levels to hold price in a range. And when market volatility is high, we expect price to break these levels.
Volatility patterns
Fortunately, in the Forex market, daily volatility is predictable. We tend to see volatility peaks around major markets openings, which are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the London Stock Exchange (LSE) and the Japanese Exchange. At the late hours of these markets, volatility tends to decrease.
These fundamental patterns are the most exploitable patterns in the Forex market. Yes, at least more exploitable than deceitful technical signals you are looking for. And they happen almost every day. However, there are exceptions. For example, we do not expect volatility peak to happen when countries of these big markets are on bank holiday.
EURUSD hourly volatility
The chart above shows the 4-weeks hourly volatility for the EUUSD pair. It is the average in pip of the difference between the highest and the lowest price of each hour of the day, over four weeks. Each bar represents the average in hourly range over four weeks.
There are two major peaks corresponding to the LSE and the NYSE openings.
Since the EUUSD is the most traded pair, we consider its volatility as "market volatility". In fact, the hourly volatility chart of the other pairs gives approximately the same pattern.
USDCAD hourly volatility
These charts were taken in May 2016. Take a look at Mataf.net’s volatility tool and type four (for four weeks) in the entry box. You will see approximately this same pattern in hourly volatility, with the two major peaks (UK and US opens) and decreasing volatility starting from the mid-US session. (Currently the pattern is disturbed by the brexit monster volatility, it will become clear again within few weeks)
We also have decreased volatility during the Asian session when there is no major news release coming from the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) or the Bank Of Japan (BOJ).
Asian sessions
These charts tell us market volatility is predictable. This leads us to define two principles:
First Principle: Around major markets openings (active time), market volatility tends to surge. We expect to see range breakouts, spikes or rallies. It is the best time to trade breakouts i.e., buying new highs and selling new lows.
Second Principle: During the late hours of major markets sessions and when major markets are closed (quiet time), market volatility tends to decrease considerably. We expect to see trading range or congestion in price action. It is the best time to range-trade i.e., buying the lows and selling the highs.
principles
Any trading strategy or system has to adapt to these variations in volatility to perform over time. If you are struggling with a particular strategy, maybe you are ignoring these changes in volatility.
How volatility patterns can help in improving your trading?
One cannot apply a strategy any time and expect to be profitable. When we simulate an automated and intraday trading system over three months without time filtering, we will notice the system is only profitable at certain hours of the day. This simply reflects intraday volatility variations.
You have to determine if your trading strategy is a trend following method or a range trading one.
If your strategy is a trend following approach, you will want to only trade around major markets openings to maximize profits. Otherwise, you will tend to give back profits as price slows down in the mid-session and market volatility decrease.
If your strategy is a range trading or reversal approach, you will want to only trade during quiet market time and avoid trading around market openings or around news releases.
Less trades maximize profits. Most of my trading sessions last less than one hour.
I made a portable document of this.
submitted by alm_hd to Forex [link] [comments]

FXPA White Paper: Sources of FX Market Liquidity During the Brexit Vote

The (brief and simple) whitepaper offers a behind-the-scenes look at liquidity flows during the Brexit vote. This isn't a topic that has garnered much attention, given the spot market had fairly minimal dysfunction during Brexit, and the paper itself doesn't offer the same level of highly detailed insight into bank trader activities that the criminal trial of HSBC FX trader Mark Johnson did.
What it does contain though is a very peculiar pearl of information, through its analysis of bank vs non-bank flows during the unfolding of the event.
Over the sample window, banks were responsible for 66.6% of Cable flow, 67.25% of EUGBP flow, 64.9% of EUUSD flow, 64.1% of USD/JPY and 61.7% of EUJPY
compare this to:
The proportion of flow in GBP/JPY was wild – with non-bank participants in one hour responsible for 96% of flow and in another, just 9%.
That non-bank participants should completely dominate flows for that cross seems notable.
One contributing factor is highlighted earlier in the paper.
The non-bank proportion rose in EUGBP and EUJPY, but could be because the data suggest the non-banks are more active in crosses than the “legs”. Several of these firms construct a price in the cross using the legs and because their technology is often nimbler and quicker, they are top of book in the more complex pairs.
(Emphasis mine)
What does all this mean for your trading?
For most people, it means nothing at all, as most retail traders get no further than the chart as printed and a series of set criteria.
For traders who work with market feel, or the lower timeframes, it raises some interesting question about whether or not non-bank liquidity feels different from bank dominated markets.
Non-bank liquidity providers are certainly working with a different agenda, different tech, and different liquidity networks from banks. And whilst not necessarily behaving unethically, they are also less likely to have a prudential-oriented client focus - banks in theory are trying to get best price for clients without disrupting the market, non-bank actors don't necessarily operate by these principles.
They also are more likely to operate with different risk parameters - high turnover, 'hot potato' providers have less depth of pocket than banks, so perhaps there might be more churn and candle-wick-y-ness, especially on thinner liquidity networks.
This is very subjective, and speculative, of course, but that is the nature of the way some of us play the game!
Here is the direct download link for the full text: https://fxpa.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/FXPA-brexit1B-FINAL.pdf
(The FXPA is the Foreign Exchange Professionals Association, an industry group whose founders include Bloomberg, CME, ICE, State Street and Virtu. It's an organisational body, so does not take membership from individuals).
submitted by alotmorealots to Forex [link] [comments]

ALL YOU NEED TO LEARN TO TRADE FOREX - (Full Course in ... El Mejor Curso de Forex Trading Profesional Parte #1 HD ... The Basic Principles Of Forex Online Trading Curso de Forex Completo Gratis en Español  Aprende ... Wyckoff Theory  Part 1 Principles For Success by Ray Dalio (In 30 Minutes) - YouTube Forex 101 - Forex Explained Via Power point - Forex for Beginners How Markets are Moved by Hurst Cycles - YouTube The Basic Principles Of [PDF] FOREX TRADING: The Basics ... Waa Maxay Forex? (Af-soomaali) - YouTube

This Forex Trading PDF is written in such a way that even complete beginners can understand it and learn from it. In other words, we have read tons of Forex books, opened and closed thousands of trades; have filtered out 💦all the needed basics for beginner traders, and simplified them. So all you have to do is to take this FREE knowledge and start your online currency trading journey ... principles). By trading more lots a scalper can achieve significant gains comparable to the gains expected by day & position traders in the same time span even though the scalper engages in much smaller individual trades. For example, a scalper that succeeds in capturing just 5 pips could have made $500 in under a minute if he traded 10 regular lots. In some circumstances ___Forex Scalping 6 ... (PDF) format, you have my permission to give away copies of it for free. In This Report ... source of factual, actual, solid, realistic Forex Profit Principles that they could use to potentially profit in the Forex markets again and again. ... Forex trading for beginners pdf. According to the Bank of International Settlements, foreign exchange trading increased to an average of $5.3 trillion a day. To simply break this down, the average has to be $220 billion per an hour. The foreign PDF Welcome to our blog on forex trading for beginners, written for individuals who desire to explore the currency markets and develop a secondary... Find, read and cite all the research you ... and hype about Forex that I had seen in some time. And that’s when I decided to put all my energy into dispelling this junk so I could give my students and readers a source of factual, actual, solid, realistic Forex Profit Principles that they could use to potentially profit in the Forex markets again and again. However, to trade with profit, traders need to know and follow some Forex principles. Have your own trading strategy. Develop your system, which is based on some significant factors for trading on Forex. Control your emotions. The unstable emotional condition may disturb the process of making decisions. Learn how to control your emotions and wishes. Have your own historical data. Write down ...

[index] [9991] [13780] [17043] [6992] [19112] [1022] [21104] [12681] [1400] [17736]

ALL YOU NEED TO LEARN TO TRADE FOREX - (Full Course in ...

En este curso encontrarás todo lo que necesitas para al fin poder ser rentable y multiplicar tu dinero sin llevar riesgo de perder tu capital. My Fx Broker: https://my.myfxchoice.com/registration/?ib=107287 Subscribe to my music youtube channel! Big thanks http://youtube.com/vx3k All teaching I do i... The Basic Principles Of Forex Online Trading ... online forex trading affiliate program online forex trading advice online forex trading account india online forex trading analysis online forex ... Welcome to my Channel. Forex 101 - Forex Explained Via Power point - Forex for Beginners In this video i go over the basics of what Forex is, how you trade the Forex Markets, Who participates in ... Ogow Xaqiiqada dhabta ah ee Suuqa Sarifka Lacagaha Qalaad iyo Qeexida dhammaystiran ee Forex Trading. Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/moalimuu/ https://... Canal Secundario (Videos de Operaciones Reales): https://www.youtube.com/c/AngelJuarezTrader ★Curso de Forex Completo (6 Etapas) https://divisas4x.com/curso-... The beginning of a series on Wyckoff market theory. Part 1 covers the basics to Wyckoff's theory and how we can trade like 'smart money' by targeting retail trader's stop-loss clusters. The ... Join me on a thought-provoking adventure in my new animated mini-series, Principles for Success. I've taken my book Principles, and distilled it into a 30 mi... Watch the latest market update: How Bearish are the US markets? - 28 October 2020 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O98yGXMKUeA --~-- An introduction to Hurst'... https://bit.ly/2TEdSSR The world of foreign exchange, or forex, can be daunting even to knowledgeable hands-on financiers. However, there are plenty of books...

https://arab-binary-option.hachancau.tk